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By the end of the study, 16.6% (96/578) of the patients in the olmesartan group discontinued olmesartan due to adverse events and other reasons (see Supplementary material online, Table S4 ). Besides hypotension (7.0%), renal dysfunction (1.2%), and worsening HF (0.7%) were the main adverse events (see Supplementary material online, Table S4 ).

In the SUPPORT trial, we examined whether an additive treatment with an ARB, olmesartan, reduces the mortality and morbidity in CHF patients with a history of hypertension and treated with ACE inhibitors and β-blockers. The results revealed that additive use of olmesartan to ACE inhibitors and/or β-blockers did not improve clinical outcomes but worsened renal function in hypertensive CHF patients. Furthermore, subgroup analysis suggested that the triple combination therapy with olmesartan, ACE inhibitors and β-blockers was associated with increased adverse cardiac events and renal dysfunction.

Angiotensin receptor blockers have been shown to provide various cardioprotective effects for patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, 16–19 and are now widely used for the management of CHF worldwide. 20–23 However, there have been no reports to evaluate the additive impact of ARBs in CHF patients with hypertension treated with evidence-based medications. The SUPPORT trial was the first to examine the efficacy of additive use of an ARB to ACE inhibitors and/or β-blockers in hypertensive patients with CHF. The results demonstrated that additive use of olmesartan did not decrease the primary endpoint, a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalization for worsening HF, but increased renal dysfunction in hypertensive CHF patients. Importantly, the triple combination of olmesartan, ACE inhibitors, and β-blockers was associated with an increase in the primary endpoint, particularly in patients with SBP of <130 mmHg, eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , serum BNP levels of ≥100 pg/mL, and high-sensitive CRP level of ≥1.0 mg/L. The triple combination of olmesartan, ACE inhibitors, and β-blockers was also associated with increased incidence of all-cause death and renal dysfunction, whereas the dual combination of olmesartan and ACE inhibitors or β-blockers was not associated with any increase in the primary or secondary endpoints. In addition, it was noteworthy that dual combination of olmesartan and ACE inhibitors was associated with a decrease in new-onset atrial fibrillation and that of olmesartan and β-blockers was associated with decreased mortality without development of renal dysfunction. Thus, it is suggested that the triple combination is harmful but the dual combination therapy, particularly that of olmesartan and β-blockers, could be beneficial in hypertensive patients with CHF. However, dual combination therapy of olmesartan and ACE inhibitors warrants a caution as recent studies suggested that dual blockade of RAS failed to reduce mortality but was associated with an excessive risk of adverse effects, including renal dysfunction, hyperkalaemia, and hypotension, particularly in those without HF. 15–18

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What is a Buyer Persona? Why the Original Definition Still Matters to B2B

English: Public Domain artwork of a SVG businessman image (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

When I first founded buyer persona development a dozen years ago, I used to get asked, “What is a buyer persona?” quite often. Nowadays, as I Relic Osiris GyxT7lZ1tS
about buyer personas and buyer insights, I have to remind myself to ask what the person believes a buyer persona is.

Of late, there has been a rash of definitions added to the many, which has surfaced over the years. It is time to revisit the original definition of buyer personas and breakdown why it still matters.

The Definition

The original definition established in 2002: What is a Buyer Persona?

Buyer personas are research-based archetypal (modeled) representations of who buyers are, what they are trying to accomplish, what goals drive their behavior, how they think, how they buy, and why they make buying decisions. (Today, I now include where they buy as well as when buyers decide to buy.)

As you can see here, this has nothing to do with profiling. And, it has everything to do with buying behavior.

I have highlighted the words who, what, how, and why – to emphasize we are seeking the story of buyers. This has evolved to highlight the added importance of where and when . Telling the story of buyers today takes the fundamental basics of qualitative storytelling: who, what, where, when, how, and why .

A Deeper Understanding

The purpose of researching and modeling buyer personas is to help us gain a deeper understanding of buyers and their buying behaviors. This helpful understanding aimed at informing decisions on marketing and sales strategies. Learning about the buyers of today involves learning about the new language of buyers. A deeper understanding also requires we develop a new robust vocabulary about buyers – expressed in everyday terms. This new vocabulary must be consistent as in any practice and discipline.

Breakdown of the Definition

With this in mind, let us breakdown the original and consistent definition of a buyer persona, which still matters, even more so, in the new digital age:

Research-Based

The primary foundation of buyer personas is the research of buying behaviors. It is neither a profiling nor a win/loss exercise. Much of the research principles are rooted in the origins of personas as well as in the social sciences. Buyer research involves the techniques of qualitative research, ethnographic research, business anthropology, and digital anthropology. Simply stated, a buyer persona cannot be defined unless it is research-based.

In 1910, the republican movement overthrew the monarchy and established a republic. However, the new republic continued to lurch from crisis to crisis, reaching a near collapse by the mid 1920s. At this time, the military intervened and asked Professor Oliveira Salazar, a well-reputed economist from Coimbra University, to take control of the nation's economy and help guide the country to prosperity. By the early 1930s, Portugal had stabilised and Salazar's role was reinforced by the establishment of a corporatist authoritarian one-party state which prioritised balancing the books over social needs.

Although Portugal registered phenomenal economic growth from the 1950s onwards, the corporatist regime or Estado Novo (New State) gradually became unpopular due to its undemocratic handling of government affairs. In response, the New State implemented a regime of repression against any opposition which resulted in independence movements appearing in Portugal's overseas colonies, culminating in a prolonged colonial war. Coupled with a growing discontent within its own continental metropolitan population, the regime's authority was further undermined. Internationally, the national prestige suffered severe setbacks at the UN due to the regime stubborness in not allowing democracy to gain inroads, Amnesty International is created in early 1960's as a result of PIDE/DGS arresting several dissenting students from Coimbra University. By April 1974 a military left leaning coup d'état organised mostly by junior army officers backed by popular support managed to depose the regime, and after a brief period ruled by a military junta, Portugal eventually became a free democracy. During that period, the overseas colonial wars in Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique came to a sudden end, culminating in the independence of all Portuguese African possessions (the Azores and Madeira , technically, were never "colonies"). However, as a result of poor and uncoordinated political and economical leadership in the post revolutionary period, the country quickly stagnated again. After the wave of state nationalizations came to an end and more liberal and balanced economical policies begun to be implemented in the late 1970's, Portugal gradually began to get used to a more democratic way of life and prosper. The decision to join the , now the , enabled the country to approach European standards of development after 1986. Since then, Portugal and its people has managed to modernize and develop itself despite some serious set backs like the sovereign debt crises of 2007/8.

Portugal is one of the warmest European countries. In mainland Portugal, yearly temperature averages are about 15°C (55°F) in the north and 18°C (64°F) in the south. Madeira and Azores have a narrower temperature range as expected given their insularity, with the former having low precipitation in most of the archipelago and the latter being wet and rainy. Spring and summer months are usually sunny and temperature maximum are very high during July and August, with maximums averaging between 35°C and 40°C (86°F - 95°F) in the interior of the country, 30°C and 35°C in the north. Autumn and winter are typically rainy and windy, yet sunny days are not rare either. Temperatures rarely fall below 5°C (41°F) nearer to the sea, averaging 10°C (50°F), but can reach several degrees below 0°C (32°F) further inland. Snow is common in winter in the mountainous areas of the north, especially in Serra da Estrela but melts quickly once the season is over. Portugal's climate can be classified as Mediterranean (particularly the southern parts of the Algarve and Alentejo, though technically on Atlantic shore).

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